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Genetics aid grass for bioenergy

A family of genes that could help improve grasses for bioenergy has been discovered by researchers from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) Sustainable Bioenergy Centre (BSBEC), UK.

By Kari Williamson

The genes are important in the development of the fibrous, woody parts of grasses, like rice and wheat. The team hopes that by understanding how these genes work, they might be able to breed varieties of cereals where the fibrous parts of the plants confer dietary benefits or crops whose straw requires less energy-intensive processing for bioenergy use.

The majority of the energy stored in plants is contained within the woody parts, but this energy is hard to get at. The research could offer the possibility of multi-use crops where the grain could be used for food and feed, and the straw used for bioenergy.

Professor Paul Dupree, of the University of Cambridge, explains: "Unlike starchy grains, the energy stored in the woody parts of plants is locked away and difficult to get at. Just as cows have to chew the cud and need a stomach with four compartments to extract enough energy from grass, we need to use energy-intensive mechanical and chemical processing to produce biofuels from straw.

"What we hope to do with this research is to produce varieties of plants where the woody parts yield their energy much more readily – but without compromising the structure of the plant. We think that one way to do this might be to modify the genes that are involved in the formation of a molecule called xylan – a crucial structural component of plants."

Xylan is a component of the tough walls that surround plant cells. It holds the other molecules in place and helps to make a plant robust and rigid. This rigidity is important for the plant, but locks in the energy needed to produce bioenergy efficiently.

Grasses contain a substantially different form of xylan to other plants. The team wanted to find out what was responsible for this difference and so looked for genes that were turned on much more regularly in grasses than in the model plant Arabidopsis. Once they had identified the gene family in wheat and rice, called GT61, they were able transfer it into Arabidopsis, which in turn developed the grass form of xylan.

Dr Rowan Mitchell of Rothamsted Research, adds: "As well as adding the GT61 genes to Arabidopsis, we also turned off the genes in wheat grain. Both the Arabidopsis plants and the wheat grain appeared normal, despite the changes to xylan. This suggests that we can make modifications to xylan without compromising its ability to hold cell walls together. This is important as it would mean that there is scope to produce plant varieties that strike the right balance of being sturdy enough to grow and thrive, whilst also having other useful properties such as for biofuel production."

The research was carried out by a team from the University of Cambridge and Rothamsted Research, which receives strategic funding from BBSRC. Their findings are published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

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