The project will start with a study to assess the wave, tidal and ocean thermal energy potential of the Maldives, carried out by Robert Gordon University, a member of Scotland's Energy Technology Partnership.
The two countries will then work together in order to exploit the Maldives' potential marine energy.
Maldivian Environment Minister Mohamed Aslam, says: "This partnership with Scotland will help the Maldives attain its goal of being the world's first carbon neutral country by 2020. The Maldives is highly vulnerable to increases in the oil price, over which we have no control. Finding renewable energy solutions is essential for our future economic development and prosperity.
"If the Maldives can demonstrate that low-carbon development is not just practical but also profitable, we hope larger countries will follow suit. As an island nation spread over a thousand kilometres of ocean, I believe marine renewables hold enormous potential to make the Maldives an international energy leader in the zero-carbon economy of the future."